Key words needed for this section


Introduction


This topic builds on the concepts introduced in “Introduction to project management” and provides
students with a more in-depth understanding of the development of IT systems.
Most organizations, at some stage in their development, require the introduction of a new IT system as
well as the maintenance and eventual retirement of their current systems. The ability of the organization to
manage this change can determine the future viability of the organization.
Students should consider the interrelationship between stakeholders, IT systems, data, processes and
policies, which provides the framework for the different project management approaches needed in
order to accomplish the specified task.
For example, students should research real examples of the role of IT professionals who maintain legacy or develop new IT systems, to reinforce the theoretical concepts addressed in this topic.

Possible scenarios


Students may take the development of their internal assessment as a starting point for the application of the
theoretical and practical aspects of this topic. This may take the form of producing a Gantt chart to indicate
the stages in the development of the solution, on the agreed date, or how differing methodologies may
lead to variations in the completion of tasks.

Other scenarios may include a city government that wishes to introduce an improved IT system to provide
a more secure and effective method of record keeping in its public libraries. This would include the
replacement of the storage area network (SAN) to accommodate the increased amount of data requiring
archiving, along with the need to provide a disaster recovery system.
itsystems.jpg

IT concepts to address in this topic

Information systems, people and teams
  • The role and need for IT in organizations


  • Organizational IT policies - find some examples (most obvious example would be the school's policy)
Account policy computer monitoring
  • IT personnel and organizational structure: for example IS managers, support staff, network manager, database administrator
  • Development personnel; for example, manager, programmer, analyst, project manager


Gantt Chart for project Management
Download the free, open source software and use it to plan the stages involved in your internal assessment project for ITGS

The system development life cycle (SDLC)
Example



Strand 1: Reliability and integrity, Security
Strand 3: Hardware, Software, Networks, Introduction to project management


• Analysis of current situation
The initiation of a system (or project) begins when a business need or opportunity is identified. A Project Manager should be appointed to manage the project. This business need is documented in a Concept Proposal. After the Concept Proposal is approved, the System Concept Development Phase begins. (Criterion A - Initial Investigation)

external image SDLC-Maintenance-Highlighted.png
external image SDLC-Maintenance-Highlighted.png

• Organizational requirements
Functional user requirements are formally defined and delineate the requirements in terms of data, system performance, security, and maintainability requirements for the system. All requirements are defined to a level of detail sufficient for systems design to proceed. All requirements need to be measurable and testable and relate to the business need or opportunity identified in the Initiation Phase. (Criterion B - Analysis - Requirements Specifications)

• Methods of data collection - questionnaires, interviews, observation, literature searches(Criterion A - Initial Consultation with Client)

• Feasibility study
Once a business need is approved, the approaches for accomplishing the concept are reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness.(Criterion B - Analysis - Justification of the proposed solution)

• Identification of possible IT solutions
The concept is further developed to describe how the business will operate once the approved system is implemented, and to assess how the system will impact employee and customer privacy. To ensure the products and /or services provide the required capability on-time and within budget, project resources, activities, schedules, tools, and reviews are defined. Additionally, security certification and accreditation activities begin with the identification of system security requirements and the completion of a high level vulnerability assessment. (Criterion B - Analysis - Requirements Specification)

• Requirements specification
(Criterion B - Analysis - Requirements specification)

• Justification of preferred IT solution
(Criterion B - Analysis - Justification of the proposed solution)

• Project plan (who, why, what, when and how part of the project)
(Criterion C - Project Schedule)

• Project goals, scope and constraints, such as financial, time, technical, human-resource-related, risks,
communication, procurement, quality
(Criterion C - Project Schedule)

• Project initiation document
The physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. The operating environment is established, major subsystems and their inputs and outputs are defined, and processes are allocated to resources. Everything requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user. The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design is prepared. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed structure of the system. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design units or modules. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software module. (Criterion D - Product Design)


Design considerations- Basic Concepts and Ideas for Developing a Web Site
The physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. The operating environment is established, major subsystems and their inputs and outputs are defined, and processes are allocated to resources. Everything requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user. The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design is prepared. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed structure of the system. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design units or modules. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software module. (Criterion D:Product design)


Inputs, data structure, processes, outputs, user interface

Prototyping

Development of the IT solution
The detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into hardware, communications, and executable software. Software shall be unit tested, integrated, and retested in a systematic manner. Hardware is assembled and tested. (CriterionD:Product development)

Implementation, Initial testing, alpha testing
The detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into hardware, communications, and executable software. Software shall be unit tested, integrated, and retested in a systematic manner. Hardware is assembled and tested.

Quality assurance and quality control

Training and support of staff, documentation to support the new IT system (Criterion F: Product evaluation and future product development)

Changeover methods: direct, phased and parallel running

Beta testing (Criterion G: Required elements)

Maintenance
The system operation is ongoing. The system is monitored for continued performance in accordance with user requirements, and needed system modifications are incorporated. The operational system is periodically assessed through In-Process Reviews to determine how the system can be made more efficient and effective. Operations continue as long as the system can be effectively adapted to respond to an organization’s needs. When modifications or changes are identified as necessary, the system may reenter the planning phase.

Phase out
The disposition activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the information may be reactivated in the future if necessary. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system, so that the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance with applicable records management regulations and policies, for potential future access.
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Project management issues
• Need for project management - Link
• Development methodologies: agile development and waterfall development

waterfall.jpg
agile.png
The waterfall model versus the Agile model

http://www.agilenutshell.com/agile_vs_waterfall
https://sites.google.com/site/mrstevensonstechclassroom/hl-topics-only/it-systems-in-organizations/project-management-issues
http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-5-2005-63768.asp


The waterfall model is a sequential design process, often used in software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design Construction, Testing, Production. Production/Implementation and Maintenance.

Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies based on iterative and incremental development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams. The Agile Manifesto introduced the term in 2001.
  1. Requirements. The first step in the Traditional Software Development Process is to identify requirements as well as the scope of the release. It encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users.
  2. Architecture and Design. The goal of the architecture and design phase is to try to identify an architecture that has a good chance of working. The architecture is often defined using free-form diagrams which explore the technical infrastructure, and the major business entities and their relationships. The design is derived in a modeling session, in which issues are explored, until the team is satisfied that they understand what needs to be delivered.
  3. Development. The development phase uses an evolutionary method that is an iterative and incremental approach to software development. Instead of creating a comprehensive prerequisite such as a requirements specification, that you review and accept before creating a complete design model; the critical development piece evolves over time in an iterative manner. The system is delivered incrementally over time, in small modules that have immediate business value, rather than building and then delivering a system in a single “big bang” release. By focusing development on smaller modules, agile projects are able to control costs despite the seeming lack of planning.
  4. Test and Feedback. One of the key principles of the Agile Methodology is to conduct the testing of the software as it is being developed. The software development is test driven. The unit testing is achieved from the developer’s perspective and the acceptance testing is conducted from the customer’s perspective.

Waterfall versus Agile Methodology

Great example of a software Development Life Cycle

• Project management methodologies: for example, PRINCE2 - "PRINCE2 made simple" (projects in controlled environments 2),
SSADM (structured systems analysis and design method), PMBoK (project management body of
knowledge), CMMI (capability maturity model integration).

The key features of PRINCE2 are:
  • Its focus on business justification
  • A defined organisation structure for the project management team
  • Its product-based planning approach
  • Its emphasis on dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages
  • Its flexibility to be applied at a level appropriate to the project.

SSADM application development projects are divided into five modules that are further broken down into a hierarchy of stages, steps and tasks:
  1. Feasibility Study -- the business area is analyzed to determine whether a system can cost effectively support the business requirements.
  2. Requirements Analysis -- the requirements of the system to be developed are identified and the current business environment is modeled in terms of the processes carried out and the data structures involved.
  3. Requirements Specification -- detailed functional and non-functional requirements are identified and new techniques are introduced to define the required processing and data structures.
  4. Logical System Specification -- technical systems options are produced and the logical design of update and enquiry processing and system dialogues.
  5. Physical Design -- a physical database design and a set of program specifications are created using the logical system specification and technical system specification.

• Iteration
• Time constraints, tasks, resources and milestones; Gantt (Schedual) and Pert charts (analyze and represent tasks)
• Modelling systems: for example, entities, entity relationship diagrams (ERD), data flow diagrams
• Maintenance of legacy systems
• System support: for example, internal support, maintenance contract
• Incident management and escalation - refers to the activities of an organization to identify, analyze and correct hazards -wikipedia.com

Incident Management Activities include the following:
  • Incident detection and reporting
  • Classification and initial support
  • Investigation and diagnosis
  • Resolution and recovery
  • Incident closure
  • Incident ownership




Task: Make notes on:

1. What is an IT system? Why change?
2. The Systems Life Cycle - different stages (Analysis, design, implementation, testing, installation, maintenance). Gantt Charts, PERT, Data Flow diagrams, Entity relationship diagrams
3. Development methodologies - waterfall, agile development
4. What is project management & why it it so important?
5. Project management methodologies - PRINCE 2, SSADM, PMKoK, CMMI

Make use of some of the links above, as well as, Tomorrow's Technology and You